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Wednesday, 01. January 1986 /

PharmaTutor PharmaSim

Project title:



Project leader:

Daniel Keller  

Financial support:    
Project background:

In 1986 and 1987, the years that Animalfree Research fully supported the development of the software PharmaTutor, it was common for students of medicine, pharmacology or pharmacy to use rodents for their education. Testing compounds which change physiological parameters such as blood pressure or pulse helped them understand the responses of an organism.  

The idea of the PharmaTutor software was to reduce the number of animals (especially mice) used every year for demonstration purposes at universities in Europe.  

PharmaTutor is a graphic-based interactive computer programme. It consists of 5 parts, each designed to be a self-contained practical class exercise that can be completed in a relatively short time (20 to 25 mins):

1. Pharmacokinetic simulations (IV injection, IV infusion, single oral dose, two-compartment model, renal insufficiency);

2. Blood pressure and catecholamines;

3. Blood pressure and acetylcholine;

4. Smooth muscle in an organ bath;

5. Neuro-muscular transmission (including the effects of tubocurarine, suxamethonium and neostigmine in various combinations).  

In 1995, Daniel Keller presented a follow-up, the software PharmaSim. PharmaSim (developed over two years at the ETH Zurich) was a programme capable of simulating pharmacokinetics (drug levels in the plasma) based on compartment models. Animalfree Research helped the project to take off with financial support in the first year.    




Keller D. (1987): Pharmakologie-Unterricht am Computer. ALTEX 4: 5-11. Keller D. (1995): Pharmacokinetic Simulations for Teaching. ALTEX 12: 152-155. Smith A., Fosse R., Dewhurst D., Smith K. (1997): Educational Simulation Models in the Biomedical Sciences, ILAR 38: 82–88.    


In recognition of his pioneering work, Daniel Keller was awarded the animal welfare prize of the French Organization Association de Defense des Animaux de Compagnie.  

Today the software PharmaTutor is still available for download ( but it has not been extended or revised since 1987.